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Although few studiesfocus on corruption risks in multilateral development banks, there is a broad consensus that corruption affects MDBs financed projects in all sectors. MDBs have started addressing these issues by developing “zero tolerance” anti-corruption policies, reviewing internal procedures, setting up fraud and corruption investigative bodies, and supporting partner countries’ anti-corruption initiatives. In line with other MDBs’ initiatives, the African Development Bank (AFDB)’s efforts have focussed on strengthening its anti-corruption framework along four major dimensions, namely prevention, detection, investigation and sanctions.
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