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Deforestation in Peru: Confronting the informal practices, state capture, and collusion

Aspects of Peruvian politics contribute significantly to deforestation of the Amazon. Informal practices, state capture, and collusion are compounded by the development of intensive agriculture, proposed reforms of small-scale mining and forestry as well as existing legal restrictions. These reforms undermine efforts to protect the Amazon region. Greater transparency and accountability of elected officials, as well as enhanced environmental management, is crucial to meeting the challenges faced by those who wish to protect the Amazon.

9 April 2024
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Deforestation in Peru: Confronting the informal practices, state capture, and collusion

Main points

  • The main drivers of deforestation in Peru are mining and agriculture. The development of these industries, as well as the implementation of policies and programmes in the forest sector, are influenced by informal practices, state capture, and collusion.
  • From 2009, Peru’s newly formed regional governments acquired powers to govern natural resources – the first five regions to be granted these powers were all in the Amazon. Subnational politics plays a significant role in implementing national policies for protecting the Amazon.
  • Two specific cases of reform – expansion of small-scale mining and legalisation of crops grown in illegally deforested areas – could have a further detrimental impact on conservation efforts.
  • Protection of the Amazon relies on improving the transparency and accountability of elected officials; preventing collusion between private and political interests, by ensuring more independence of the administration agencies involved; and placing forest management under the direct authority of environmental actors.

Cite this publication

Gianella Malca, C. (2024) Bergen: U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Chr. Michelsen Institute (U4 Brief 2024:5)

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About the author

Camila Gianella Malca

Camila Gianella Malca received a PhD in Psychology from the University of Bergen. She holds an MSc from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and a degree in psychology from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, where she is an assistant professor at the Department of Social Sciences.


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This work is licenced under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


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