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Corruption permeates all sectors, and manifests itself through various forms, including petty and grand corruption, embezzlement of public funds, and a system of political patronage well entrenched within the fabrics of society. Evidence of the impact of corruption is scarce and concealed by the country’s economic and political instability. Nevertheless, there is evidence that patronage has a negative impact on small and medium sized enterprises. Also, corruption in the police and security forces undermines internal security and allows abuses of civil and political rights. The lack of transparency in the oil sector contributes to political instability between Northern and Southern Sudan in the middle and long term.
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