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The most commonly employed mechanisms for generating quantitative data on corruption are surveys, economic analysis or estimates based thereon. At regional levels, the World Bank governance indicators, TI Corruption Perception Index, the Southern African Democracy Barometer as well as TI’ Global Corruption Barometer provide valuable information on the extent of corruption in Africa. At the national level, various corruption surveys have been conducted in Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda between 1996 and 2003. Corruption in Africa is not only perceived to be widespread but costly. There have been attempts to quantify the impact of corruption on the national economy, aid effectiveness, revenue collection and household expenditure. But the cost of corruption can not only be measured in terms of the loss of funds but also in terms of delayed development and increased inequalities.
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