Performance-based accountability is appealing because of its potential to improve government service delivery and to ensure the integrity of public operations. But implementation of such a system represents a major challenge for any public sector organization. This volume discusses issues associated with performance-based accountability in two parts. The ﬁrst deals with public management reforms to ensure the integrity and improve the efﬁciency of government operations. The second part provides advice on strengthening the role of representative institutions, such as committees of parliament, in providing oversight of government programs. It also provides guidance on how auditing institutions can be used to detect fraud and corruption. The book highlights the causes of corruption and the use of both internal and external accountability institutions and mechanisms to ﬁght it. It provides advice on how to tailor anticorruption programs to individual country circumstances and how to sequence reform efforts to ensure sustainability.